The vacuum process of thin film deposition involves the application of coatings of pure materials over the surface of varied and differing objects. The thickness of coatings or films typically possess a range of microns and angstroms and can be of single material or a layered structure of multiple materials. Using quartz crystal monitoring, there are basic principles used to control the thickness and rate of thin film deposition.
The key class of deposition methods is evaporation which involes heating a solid material within a high vacuum chamber in which vapor pressure is produced. A relatively low vapor pressure is adequate to raise a vapor cloud within the vacuum chamber, which is then condensed over surfaces as a coating or film.
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